Why should tea be fermented? The fundamental purpose is to improve the taste of tea soup, but also to develop and enrich its aroma.
Everyone knows that green tea is not fermented. When we drink green tea, we actually drink the authentic taste of the tea. Does the green tea’s more prominent taste bitter, especially summer and autumn tea? If all the tea leaves are made according to the routine of green tea, wouldn’t it be good for those who don’t like bitterness or have stomach problems?
But in the production of fermented tea, people did not have a very clear purpose to process it.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that produces chemical changes in organic substrates through the action of enzymes. In biochemistry, it is narrowly defined as the extraction of energy from carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. In the context of food production, it may more broadly refer to any process in which the activity of microorganisms brings about a desirable change to a foodstuff or beverage. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.
In microorganisms, fermentation is the primary means of producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the degradation of organic nutrients anaerobically. Humans have used fermentation to produce foodstuffs and beverages since the Neolithic age. For example, fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kombucha, kimchi, and yogurt, as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer. Fermentation also occurs within the gastrointestinal tracts of all animals, including humans.
In fact, almost all fermented teas are produced directly or indirectly from the failure of green tea processing. In modern times, scientists have standardized them one by one according to the process, fermentation degree, and quality characteristics, thus forming various teas.
Since fermentation is mainly to improve the taste, the more tea polyphenols that give us a bitter taste are oxidized, the smoother the taste will be. The rule is that the heavier the fermentation, the less bitter the tea soup will be; on the contrary, the bitter taste will be obvious.
Yellow tea is micro-fermented tea. It is a non-enzymatic automatic oxidation of polyphenolic compounds under high humidity and high heat conditions, producing yellow theaflavins-that is, tea polyphenols are reduced and converted into a A small amount of oxide, which forms the golden yellow color unique to yellow tea and a slightly more mellow taste than green tea.
Oolong tea is a semi-fermented tea. Its fermentation is mainly done under the process of making green. Doing green enzymatically oxidizes the polyphenolic compounds to produce more theaflavins, thereby forming a floral fragrance, a rich endoplasm and a green leaf with red edges. Compared with green tea, the aroma and taste of tea have been significantly improved.
Black tea is a fully fermented tea. In theory, all its fermentation is completed in the whole process of withering, twisting, and reddening, that is, its polyphenolic compounds are 100% oxidized by the enzymatic oxidation and thermalization reaction to be produced as thearubin Mainly, with some theaflavins, so that the tea soup is mellow and sweet, not bitter, and the aroma is sweet and sweet. In production, fermentation cannot actually reach 100%, so there is generally a slight astringency, which is normal.
Practice has proved that the various fermentation teas formed by different fermentation processes not only make the tea aroma and taste unique, but also these characteristics make the tea more charming and loved by a wider range of people.
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